Bunker, le nuove norme IMO in vista del tetto massimo per le emissioni di zolfo delle navi

Dall’1 ° gennaio 2019 è cambiata la bolla di consegna del bunker che si è arricchita di nuovi elementi così come  stabilito  l’Organizzazione Marittima Internazionale (IMO). Gli emendamenti riguardano la fornitura di combustibile  alle navi dotate di dispositivi  alternativi  di depurazione, in modo  da soddisfare i requisiti relativi alle emissioni di zolfo. Queste novità vengono introdotte un anno prima dell’1  gennaio 2020, quando il limite per lo zolfo nell’olio combustibile sarà ridotto dall’attuale 3,5% allo 0,50% m / m al di fuori delle aree di controllo delle emissioni (ECA). Nelle quattro aree ECA, l’area del Mar Baltico, l’area del Mare del Nord, l’area Nordamericana e l’area del Mar dei Caraibi degli Stati Uniti, il limite rimarrà allo 0,10% m / m.

Le modifiche all’appendice V dell’allegato VI della convenzione MARPOL mirano a risolvere situazioni in cui il combustibile pur non soddisfando  i requisiti di basso tenore di zolfo,  viene  fornito a navi che utilizzano un metodo alternativo conforme,  consentito dalla norma 4 dell’allegato VI della convenzione MARPOL , per ridurre le emissioni di ossido di zolfo  e rispettare i requisiti MARPOL. Un sistema considerato  equivalente può essere una tecnologia di abbattimento come uno scrubber, purché lo stesso sia stato accettato dallo stato di bandiera della nave, come mezzo alternativo per soddisfare il requisito del  basso tenore di zolfo.

Nell’ottobre 2018, il Comitato per la protezione dell’ambiente marino dell’IMO (MEPC) ha adottato un ulteriore emendamento all’Allegato VI MARPOL, che proibisce il trasporto di combustibile non conforme con  finalità di  combustione per la propulsione o il funzionamento a bordo di una nave – a meno che la stessa non abbia un dispositivo di depurazione conforme. L’emendamento dovrebbe entrare in vigore il 1 ° marzo 2020 e dovrà (tra le altre cose) modificare la forma del Certificato internazionale di prevenzione dell’inquinamento atmosferico (Certificato IAPP), in modo da specificare che, per una nave priva di un dispositivo di depurazione conforme, il tenore di zolfo dell’olio combustibile trasportato per l’uso a bordo non  superi  lo 0,50% m / m come documentato dalla bolla di consegna del bunker.

Sempre l’1 gennaio 2019 sono stati approvati gli emendamenti all’Allegato VI di MARPOL che  designano  il Mare del Nord e il Mar Baltico come aree ECA (Zone di controllo delle emissioni) per gli ossidi di azoto (NOx). Entrambe le nuove aree ECA entreranno in vigore il 1 ° gennaio 2021 e registreranno emissioni di NOx notevolmente inferiori rispetto alla navigazione  internazionale in quelle zone marittime.

Dal 1 ° gennaio 2019, le navi di stazza pari o superiore a 5.000 tonnellate sono inoltre obbligate  a raccogliere dati sul loro consumo di combustibile, come previsto dalle norme circa la comunicazione di tali informazioni che sono entrate in vigore nel marzo 2018. I dati raccolti saranno poi inoltrati annualmente allo Stato di bandiera che rilascerà alla nave una dichiarazione di conformità.  Successivamente lo Stato di bandiera provvederà a trasferire tali informazioni ad una banca dati dell’IMO che è tenuta a produrre annualmente un rapporto al MEPC. Il sistema di raccolta dei dati è una delle misure che sosterrà l’attuazione della Strategia iniziale dell’IMO circa a riduzione delle emissioni di gas serra dalle navi, adottata nel 2018.

Infine,  una  serie di modifiche del 2017 (04-17) al codice IMSBC sono entrate in vigore l’1 ° gennaio 2019. Le modifiche includono l’obbligo  per il caricatore di dichiarare se un carico solido alla rinfusa, diverso dal grano, sia dannoso per l’ambiente marino. Altre modifiche comprendono  requisiti di trasporto aggiornati per un certo numero di carichi specifici, e modifiche che evidenziano  la responsabilità dello spedizioniere allo scopo di garantire l’effettuazione di  un test che determini il limite di umidità trasportabile (TML) di un carico solido alla rinfusa.

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    The information gathered they will at that point be sent yearly to the banner State which will issue a presentation of adjustment to the ship. Hence the banner State will exchange this data to an IMO database which is required to create an answer to the MEPC on a yearly premise.

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